Users of the information posted here should cite:


1. this website


“Why Not Parties in Russia?  Supplemental Information for the Book”

Henry E. Hale, George Washington University


2. the book


Henry E. Hale, Why Not Parties in Russia?  Democracy, Federalism, and the State (New York:  Cambridge University Press, 2006)

(Available now! Order at


in any resulting publications.


Please click here to access the information.